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Key disease prevention and treatment - pepper articles

Key disease prevention and treatment - pepper articles

Dead tree is the "first harm"
For vegetable growers who grow spicy (sweet) peppers, the problem of peppers is a headache for vegetable growers, especially for greenhouses that have been used for more than three years, because the dead trees cause a reduction in production or production. Through years of planting farmers, it is concluded that the early stage of planting is an important period for the prevention and control of dead trees. At this critical point, the prevention of dead trees is much better than that of the roots in the fruit-bearing period, and the cost is lower than 50%. It is also much smaller.
Through interviews, the author has learned that there are many causes of the death of peppers. In addition to the roots of the roots and the roots of the water, the seedling stage disease, stem rot and root rot are the main causes of dead trees. These diseases are collectively referred to as soil-borne diseases. In production, some are single diseases, and some are compound diseases, of which dead roots are caused by root rot. There are many kinds of pepper root rot. Nowadays, greenhouse peppers are at the peak of the results, but many vegetable farmers have reported that the peppers are dead in recent days. In some greenhouses, even 2/3 of the plants have dead trees, and the more watering, the more powerful the development. The reporter observed in a number of pepper sheds and talked with the vegetable farmers that the main diseases causing the dead trees were Fusarium solani and Phytophthora root rot.
The Fusarium solani root rot is mainly caused by the root of the pepper. After the plant is pulled out, it can be found that the root cortex of the pepper turns into a light brown to dark brown rot, which is dross-like and easily peeled off, and the exposed xylem becomes dark. And mainly through water flow. After the pepper got sick, it showed wilting during the day and recovered to the next morning in the evening, so that the pepper died after repeated days.
Medication plan: 50% chlorobromoacetic acid soluble powder 1000 times solution can be used, and 3% mildew and nail cream 800 times solution can be used for root irrigation. At the same time, the diseased plants should be separated when watering to prevent the bacteria from infecting other plants.
The Phytophthora root rot of pepper is mainly transmitted through the water stream, but it can infect the base of the stem of the pepper plant, causing the water-soaked rot and contracture of the base of the pepper, and the diseased part becomes dark brown or black; after the plant is pulled out, it can be found. The roots of the diseased plants are also water-soaked and rot, and mainly damage the peppers. For the dead plants, they are dug out, wrapped in plastic bags and taken out of the shed to avoid widespread spread.
Medication plan: Phytophthora root rot is mainly oomycetes, vegetable growers can use 58% gold leidomir 500 times liquid mixed 72.2% Plex 600 times, or 50% enoylmorpholine.
It should be noted that when watering, the water flowing through the diseased plants should not be allowed to flow to the normal plants, which is easy to infect other robust plants, resulting in large dead trees in the shed. At the same time, it is reminded that the vegetable farmers should apply the biological fertilizer (such as the antibacterial 968) when the pepper is planted, because the beneficial bacteria will multiply in the soil and will not affect the use effect with the increase of time.
Chilli leaves
The peppers caused a lot of defoliation due to infection, and when the leaves were severe, the whole leaves were stripped into bald branches. Without leaves, photosynthesis could not be carried out, and the plants eventually died and died, resulting in severe yield reduction. Recently, when the reporter visited the pepper shed area of ​​Jitai Town, Shouguang City, many vegetable farmers reflected the above situation. Because the disease could not be correctly identified, the medicine was not symptomatic and the control effect was poor. To this end, the reporter summed up the four common diseases that cause severe defoliation of peppers.
1. Pepper leaf blight. The biggest feature of the disease is that it develops from the bottom to the top. The lesions are grayish white with perforations in the middle. At the end of the disease, the bottom of the stalk is shaken by hand, and the leaves "哗哗" fall and become "the commander of the polished rod." In the prevention and treatment of this disease, it is recommended to spray 10% diphenyleconazole 1500 times solution + 20% thiabendazole 600 times solution, or 20% crown green (prochlorazin + copper rosinate) 800 times solution.
2. Capsicum bacterial leaf spot. The disease occurred more frequently in the near term, mainly in the upper leaves. At the beginning of the disease, the leaves showed yellow-green water-soaked spots, and the lesions became rust-colored at the beginning of the disease, and they were crisp and thin because they only lost the epidermis. The disease develops rapidly under high temperature and high humidity environment, and the defoliation is serious in the later period. The vegetable farmers in Qingzhou area of ​​Shandong Province commonly call the disease "bacterial yellow shoots". Spray 2% of added rice (Calariamycin) 600 times solution + 72% of agricultural streptomycin 4000 times solution, or 20% of leaf cumin 1000 times solution, or 33.5% of net fruit essence (quinatic) Copper porphyrin) 750 times solution.
3. Pepper powdery mildew. Powdery mildew is easier to identify, and white powder spots are produced on the leaves at the time of onset. Later, it develops into large patches of powder, which fills the entire leaves, causing serious defoliation of the plants. To prevent or treat the disease, spray 25% of acetaminophen 1000 times solution or 30% of ether oxystrobin water 1000-1500 times solution.
4. Chilli white star disease. The main point of identification of the disease is that the lesions on the leaves are nearly circular, white dots, and appear like scattered white stars, causing a large number of fallen leaves in the later stages of the disease. For the prevention and treatment of this disease, 12% of copper rosinate emulsifiable concentrate 500 times solution or 14% of lycopene copper hydrating agent 300 times solution can be sprayed.
Pepper rot is more common
In the process of planting colored peppers in recent years, the most common cause for vegetable farmers is the rotten stems that occur when the temperature is low in winter. In the early stage of the disease, lesions appear on the side of the lower part of the main stem, and brown rot. If the control is not timely, the stem will be quickly circumvented for a week. Finally, the rot of the plant stem will also occur, which seriously affects the economic benefits of the vegetable farmers.
This phenomenon is mainly caused by three diseases: one is the epidemic disease, then the sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and the bacterial soft rot. These three diseases can be distinguished by the following symptoms: pepper blight in the early stage of the disease is a water-soaked lesion, followed by brown or dark brown streaks around the epidermis, the branches of the disease gradually wilted, when the field humidity is high, the disease department Produces a white mildew layer with a slight odor; the sclerotinia sclerosis begins with a water-stained light brown spot, then becomes brownish, quickly wraps around the stem for a week, then expands up and down. When the humidity is high, the surface of the diseased part is white cotton fungus. The silk body, the cortex of the posterior stem is mild and odorless, and it is grayish white after drying; the bacterial soft rot is water-stained dark green plaque at first, and then becomes brown and soft rot, which has a foul odor.
In the past few years, Master Zhang has also explored an effective way to prevent dead trees from rot, mainly to “operate” the plants. In the early stage of the disease, as long as the rot does not reach half a lap, you can save it by this method, and the success rate can reach 90%. The specific method is to remove the decayed part of the plant with a blade, and then dissolve it into a paste with a mixture of sitaxin and methyl thiophanate, DT, etc., and apply it to the removed part. The diseased department must be cleaned up, and the stalked stem will produce a nodule, but it will not affect the normal growth of the plant. Master Zhang said that every year in this season, he will squat in the shed for four or five days to find a rotten place for "surgery" treatment. At the same time as the "operational surgery" of the plants, it is necessary to spray the pharmacy to prevent and cure the diseases and prevent them from continuing to spread. If it is judged which kind of disease, it can be treated according to the type of disease, and will not be repeated here; if it is not possible to determine which kind of disease, chlorothalonil or azoxystrobin can be combined with phytohormone or geranol for prevention and treatment. .