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The rice blast is aliased to the fire, the scorpion, the plague, the horror, and the Ebola horror. This disease is also one of the three friends of rice disease, just like Mei Lanju's three friends. The degree of harm of this disease varies depending on the rice variety, cultivation techniques and climatic conditions. This sentence is what the experts usually call the train. Xiao Li's parrot learns the tongue. In the epidemic year, the rice is generally reduced by 10% to 15%, and the weight is 30% to 50%. Horror, there is less incidence of early japonica rice. (Japonica rice is the basic type of rice, generally planted in low altitude and hot and humid areas.) There are many diseases in late rice, especially cockroaches. Japonica rice is more susceptible to disease, and along the river, coastal areas often occur frequently, often causing serious harm. (Indica rice is a variant of rice, planted at high altitudes, not resistant to high temperatures, japonica rice is the glutinous rice wine we drink, the boss comes with two cups)
(1) Identification and occurrence of rice blast
Rice blast can occur in all growth stages and in various parts of rice. According to the onset period and the location of the disease, the disease can be divided into nursery, leaf mites, leaf occipital palsy, thrift, panicle neck stalk, branch stalk, grain sputum, and so on. For the convenience of everyone's memory, Xiao Li created a unique stunt, and fell ill seven palms. Of course, compared with Jin Yong's grandfather's dragon and eighteen palms, this is a grandson's generation, everyone laughs.
1 nursery, the first palm of the disease, the latent disease in the seedlings pk Qianlong in the Yuan, the disease is caused by seed bacteria, serious damage in the single-season rice and the post-season rice paddy field. This palm is generally attacked before the three-leaf stage of rice. The palm is out, the water spots are spotted on the buds and the bud sheath, the lesions are not obvious, the parts close to the soil surface are grayish black, there is a gray mold layer, and the upper part is changeable. The tan curls die. If you hit someone, it is estimated that you can also be grayish black, and your hair will be burnt into a yellow-brown curl.
2 leaf 瘟, this palm power is huge, the disease is in the field pk is now in the field, the palm of the hand, the seedlings and the leaves of the adult plants can occur, the initial spot of the spot appears brown spots, and quickly expand into short Spindle-shaped to diamond-shaped, or irregularly irregular small spots, gray-green or brown, when the weather is wet, the disease department saves the oily gray green mold layer: in severe cases, the seedlings can die. It’s amazing, Xiao Li didn’t lie to you, this palm came out, and you started to shoot a small brown spot on the palm of your hand, then expanded into a spindle diamond. You don’t turn grayish green, you have to turn brown, and when you have this palm, it’s serious. Waiting for the withering and fart, the disease is generally spread during the peak period. When it happens seriously, the field of the disease is burning like a fire. Of course, this disease is divided into four symptoms, that is, this palm is a four-stroke.
Type 1, acute type, irregular lesions, from the size of the needle to the size of the mung bean, the lesions are slightly pointed at both ends, water-stained, dark green, dense gray-green mold. The appearance of acute lesions is a sign of the prevalence of rice blast. Rivers and lakes are dangerous to run quickly.
Type 2, chronic, acute type of lesions in the dry weather, enhanced plant resistance or can be converted into chronic lesions after treatment, the lesions are fusiform, the yellow is poisonous parts, the inner brown is the bad part The center grayish white is the collapsed part: the brown bad color line closes the window lesion and extends to both ends. This is an important feature of rice blast. When the weather is wet, there are often gray-green mold on the edge or back of the lesion.
Type 3, brown spot type, brown spots on lesions will be confined to the veins. When the weather is dry, it appears on the middle and lower leaves of rice plants with strong disease resistance: when it is warm and high humidity, some will become chronic lesions.
4 type white spot type: This type of disease spot is rare, often encounters adverse weather conditions when it is obvious, and it is unstable. When the weather is suitable for disease, it can be converted into acute type lesion. This move keeps in mind the combination of urgency and slowness, and the attack efficiency is greatly improved. Other two types can not be cultivated.
3, the neck of the neck (pinch neck) This move is called 亢龙 regret, why say this, because the disease occurs in the neck and cob or small platycodon, which has the greatest impact on yield. You don't regret after you get this disease. Do not regret looking for Xiao Li. I will be responsible for you. At the beginning of the disease, small brownish spots appeared, and there was watery chlorosis on the edges. Later, the diseased department will expand upwards and downwards, singing up to 2 to 3 centimeters, deepening the color, and finally blackening or breaking, causing Shibuya and even white spikes. Regret does not regret.
4, thrift, flying disease in the festival vs. flying dragon in the sky, generally occurs in the first two sections below the ear, the birth of dark brown spots, gradually expanding in a ring, and finally the entire section becomes black, causing the stalk The section is bent or broken. It’s amazing, flying sickness can make you die. Killing the cradle is just that.
5, the grain 瘟, the dragon's swaying head corresponds to the dragon's tail. This, in the grain part, that is, the head, the early lesions are oval, and the middle part is grayish white. Later, the whole encouragement turns into a dark gray Shibuya. The late onset often forms irregular dark brown spots.
At this point, the slaughter is still dependent on germs, the bacteria are hyphae, and the conidia (that is, an asexual reproduction of hyphae) spends winter on seeds and straw. After the seeded seeds are sown, the nursery can be caused. When the weather gets warmer, when the rainfall is wet, a large number of germs fly away from the diseased grass, and the wind spreads, causing the early rice seedlings or the rice plants to develop. Then the germs continue to multiply on the diseased rice and re-infested. The spores of the pathogen fall on the rice plant with the wind. As long as a drop of water is obtained, it can germinate, invade the rice plant tissue, absorb nutrients, and destroy the cells. The lesion can be seen at the invagination in as little as 4 days. It seems that the virus also knows the grace of dripping water. You must use this as a guideline.
(2) the disease conditions,
The main cause of the epidemic of rice blast is the result of comprehensive factors. Like the plague, no one can say that the main factor causing the annual incidence of morbidity is climatic conditions. The main condition for the severity of the disease in the field is the cultivation management measures. And the disease resistance of the variety. In general, reasonable management of fertilizer and water can increase the disease resistance of rice, even in the years when the disease occurs, it will reduce the incidence.
1, climate: the most suitable for the spore formation and invasive temperature of the bacteria 24 to 28 degrees. Relative humidity of 92% or more, if these two conditions exist at the same time, it is conducive to the onset: if the two lack one, it will not occur, or the onset is slow. All of the above are nonsense, but the book does not apply. Play to the booting stage, heading stage, in case of low temperature and rain, the rice grows weak and the disease resistance is weakened, which often causes the panicle neck to be popular. When this person is pregnant, the disease resistance is weakened and it is easy to be caught by the cold uncle to play with him.
2, improper fertilization, excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer, especially the use of too late, often can induce the occurrence of panicle neck stagnation, I said that the peasant brothers you apply so many nitrogen dry, there is no place for more money, it is small Li, Xiao Li will not be happy to tell you the story.
3, the disease resistance of the variety, the resistance to rice blast varies according to the variety: even the same variety, at different growth stages, the resistance to rice blast is different, generally in the four-leaf stage, tillering stage, At the end of the booting stage, it is the most susceptible to the onset of the ear, and nonsense, from the baby to the old age, does not occur at the same time.
Third, don't walk away, come back immediately, the most useful, most practical, the highest technology stage, prevention and control measures.
Take the comprehensive prevention and control measures based on the cultivation of high-yield and disease-resistant varieties, strengthen the management of fertilizer and water, and timely spray drugs after the onset of illness. The above is the expert's words.
1. Select high-yield disease-resistant varieties: use high-difference and disease-resistant varieties according to local conditions. Colleagues should pay attention to the rational layout of varieties, prevent single planting, and pay attention to the rotation and renewal of varieties. This first article, I heard the feeling of vomiting.
2, timely treatment of diseased straw, proper treatment of sick straw, ward weeds. Do not be jealous of sick straw near Putian, do not use straw as a germination cover or tie, so as not to bring the bacteria into the paddy field. You can continue to spit, Xiao Li does not pull you.
3, spit it out, spit it back, seed disinfection treatment: use 80% allicin EC at 1:2000 times to prepare a liquid soaking seeds, soak 50-50 kg per 50 kg of liquid, soak seeds for 2 days, wash After the liquid medicine, germination, this you can try, it is said to be okay.
4 Strengthen the management of fertilizer and water: rationally mix nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, increase the application of organic fertilizer, master the basic fertilizer, follow the principle of early fertilizer, and use excessive nitrogen fertilizer in the later stage of prevention and control, pay attention to appropriate application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer. In the early stage of rice growth, it insisted on shallow water irrigation. At the end of the tillering stage, the field was laid in the field at the end of the tillering stage. The horses were watered in the late stage, and the wet horse was moistened to maturity, which promoted the strong roots of the rice seedlings to enhance disease resistance and reduce the incidence.
5, do not go away, practical science popularization knowledge, chemical control, prevention of nursery and leaf lice should be in the early stage of the disease, timely elimination of the disease center: prevention of panicle neck should be applied at the end of the booting period to the break period Then, according to the weather conditions, apply the second medicine at the heading stage. The medicine can be used with 100 g of tricyclazole wettable powder per 666 square meters, or 80 to 100 ml of 25% prochloraz aqueous solution, or 75 to 115 ml of 40% rice bran emulsifiable concentrate, and 40 to 45 kg of water. Spray evenly.
Rice false disease