The rice plague disease alias fire plague, plague, plague also, the horror, not yet Ebola horror. This disease is also one of the three friends of rice diseases, just like the three friends of plum, orchid and chrysanthemum. The degree of harm caused by this disease varies depending on the variety of rice, cultivation techniques as well as climatic conditions, and this phrase is usually said by experts to run train words. Xiao Li parrots the words a little. This disease epidemic year rice yield reduction of 10% to 15% in general, heavy up to 30% to 50%. Horror, right? Early indica rice has less incidence, (indica rice is the basic type of rice, generally grown at low altitudes and in hot and humid areas.) Late rice incidence more, especially japonica, glutinous rice more prone to disease, along the river, coastal areas perennial occurrence of serious, often causing serious harm (japonica rice is a rice variant, planted at high altitudes, intolerant of high temperatures, glutinous rice is the glutinous rice wine we drink, the boss to two cups of that)
(A) rice plague identification and occurrence
Rice plague can occur in all fertility periods and all parts of rice. According to the period of onset and the different parts of the disease, this disease can be divided into seedling plague, leaf plague, leaf pillow plague, node plague, spike neck plague, branch stem plague, grain plague, etc.. In order to facilitate the memory, Xiao Li has created a unique technique, the seven palms of the disease, of course, with Jin Yong's grandfather's 18 palms, we are the grandchildren of the generation, we will ha ha a laugh.
1 seedling plague, the first palm of descending disease, latent disease in the seedling PK latent dragon in the abyss, this disease is mostly caused by seeds with bacteria, in single-season rice and post-season rice seedling field on the serious harm. This palm is generally attacked before the three-leaf stage of rice, this palm one out, buds and bud sheaths appear water-stained spots, disease spots are not obvious, diseased seedlings near the soil surface part become gray-black, there is a gray mold layer, the upper part of more yellow-brown curl withered. If you hit people, it is estimated that you can also hit you gray-black, bar your hair burned into yellow-brown curly hair.
2 leaf plague, this palm is powerful, now disease in the field PK now dragon in the field, this palm one out, seedlings and adult leaves can occur, the spot initially appear pinhead-sized brown spots, and fast expanding into short fusiform to diamond-shaped, or dense irregular small spots, gray-green or brown, when the weather is wet, the diseased part of the province oil gray-green mold layer: when serious can make seedlings die in pieces. Powerful, small Li did not lie to you, this palm out, hit you start the whole body palm brown spots, and then expand into a spindle rhombus, you do not become gray-green, also have to become brown, in this palm serious when waiting for withering burp it, this disease is generally divided into tiller bloom period bloom, serious occurrence, far look at the onset of the field such as fire over, of course, this spot divided into four symptoms, that is, this palm a move four styles
1 type, acute type, spot irregular, from the size of a pinhead to nearly the size of a green bean, hit the spot slightly pointed at both ends, water stains, dark green, dense gray-green mold. The appearance of acute type spots is the harbinger of the epidemic of rice plague. The jungle danger run quickly.
2 style, chronic type, acute type of spots in dry weather, plant resistance or by pharmaceutical control can be transformed into chronic type of spots, spots shuttle-shaped, the peripheral yellow is the poisoning site, the inner brown is the bad color part, the center gray-white is the collapse part: brown bad color line off window spots and extended to both ends, this is an important feature of rice blast, when the weather is wet, the edges or back of the spots are often gray-green mold.
Type 3, brown spot type, the spots are brown dots will be confined between the leaf veins. When the weather is dry, mostly on the lower and middle leaves of rice plants with strong disease resistance: moderate temperature, when high humidity, some will become chronic type spots.
4 type white spot type: this type of spot is rare, mostly in the apparent disease when met with unfavorable weather conditions occur, very unstable, when the weather is suitable for the onset, can be transformed into acute type spots. This move remember the combination of acute and slow, the attack efficiency is greatly improved, the other two styles can not be cultivated.
3, the spike neck plague (pinch neck plague) this move is called hyperactive, why do I say so, because this disease occurs in the spike neck and spike axis or small oranges, the greatest impact on yield. You want to have this disease after no regrets. No regrets to find Xiao Li. I will be responsible for you. The disease initially appears as a small light brown spot with a watery greenish edge. Later, the disease part upward, downward expansion, singing up to 2 to 3 cm, the color deepened, and finally become black withered or broken, resulting in blighted grain or even white spike. Regret not regret.
4, section plague, flying disease in the section vs. flying dragon in the sky, generally occurring in the first two sections below the spike, the section born black-brown small spots, gradually in a circular expansion, and finally make the entire section into black, resulting in the section culm nodes bent or broken. Awesome, flying disease can make you die young. Choke the cradle but so.
5, grain plague, the god dragon swing head corresponding to the god dragon swing tail. This, in the grain part, that is, the head, the early onset of the disease spot is oval, the central gray, later to encourage the whole into a dark gray blight, the late onset, often forming irregular dark brown spots.
To this stop, this palm trick also depends on the disease, the disease to mycelium, conidia (that is, a kind of asexual reproduction of mycelium) in the seeds and straw over the winter. After sowing the seeds with bacteria, it can cause seedling plague. When the weather turns warm and the rainfall is wet, a large number of germs fly away from the diseased straw and spread by the wind, causing disease in early rice seedlings or rice plants in large fields. Then the disease continuously multiplies on the diseased rice and re-infestation damage. The spores of the disease drift down to the rice plant with the wind, as long as they get a drop of water, they can germinate and invade the tissue of the rice plant, absorbing nutrients and destroying cells, and the disease can be seen at the invasion in as little as 4 days. It seems that the virus also knows that a drop of water should be repaid by a spring. You must take this as a guideline to do oh.
(ii) Pathogenic conditions.
Caused by the prevalence of rice plague is the result of a combination of factors, as with the plague, no one can say. The main factor that causes the disease to vary from year to year is climatic conditions, and the main conditions that cause the disease to vary from field to field are cultivation management measures and the resistance of varieties. Generally speaking, reasonable fertilizer and water management can increase the disease resistance of rice and reduce the disease even in years of heavy disease incidence.
1, Climate: The most suitable for the formation of disease spores and invasion temperature 24 ~ 28 degrees. Relative humidity of 92% or more, these two conditions, if they exist at the same time, is conducive to the onset of disease: if one of the two is missing, the disease will not develop, or the disease will develop slowly. All the above is nonsense, just the book does not apply. Play to the gestation, spike stage, such as low temperature and rainy, rice growth tender weak, disease resistance is weakened, often resulting in spike neck plague epidemic. This is the same as when people are pregnant, weakened resistance to disease is easy to be caught by the cold uncle to play with him in the past.
2, improper fertilization, nitrogen fertilizer application too much, especially the use of too late, can often induce a serious occurrence of spike neck plague, I said the farmer brothers you apply so much nitrogen to do what, there is no place to spend more money is not, that to Xiao Li, Xiao Li to you kan story can not also be happy to enjoy.
3, the variety of disease resistance, to the resistance to rice plague varies from variety to variety: even the same variety, in different stages of fertility, resistance to rice plague is also different, generally in the four-leaf stage, tillering stage, the end of pregnancy, to the beginning of the ear when the most susceptible to disease, nonsense, people from babies to old age, different periods are not the same disease.
Three, do not go away, wonderful immediately back, the most useful, practical, the most high-tech stage came, control measures.
Take the cultivation of high-yielding disease-resistant varieties as the basis, strengthen fertilizer management as the center, the onset of timely spraying of integrated control measures, the above is the words of experts, the country believes in experts these days No.
1, the choice of high-yielding disease-resistant varieties: the choice of high differential disease-resistant varieties according to local conditions, colleagues pay attention to the reasonable layout of varieties, to prevent monoculture, and pay attention to the rotation of varieties, update. This first article, listened to have no desire to vomit feeling.
2, timely treatment of disease-carrying rice straw, proper treatment of disease-carrying rice straw, diseased area weeds. Not jealous of disease-carrying rice straw near the seedling field, do not use diseased rice straw for sprouting mulch or tie seedlings, so as not to bring the disease into the rice field. You can continue to spit go, Xiao Li does not pull you.
3, spit it, spit back, seed disinfection treatment: 80% ethyl allicin emulsifiable oil at 1:2000 times with a solution to dip the seeds, every 50 kg of liquid dip 30 to 50 kg, dip the seeds for 2 days, wash the liquid and germinate, this you can try, it is said to be okay.
4 strengthen fertilizer management: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium with a reasonable mix, increase the application of organic fertilizer, grasp the base fertilizer enough, chase early fertilizer principle, control the late excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer, pay attention to the appropriate increase in phosphorus, potassium fertilizer. Insist on shallow water and diligent irrigation in the early stage of rice growth, shelve the field at the end of tillering at the right time also means drying the field, and irrigate good running water in the late stage, wetting and moistening to maturity to promote rice seedlings with strong culms and strong roots to enhance disease resistance and reduce the disease.
5, don't go away, practical science popular knowledge arrived, pharmaceutical control, control seedling plague and leaf plague should be mastered in the early onset of the drug, timely elimination of the onset of the center: control spike neck plague should be applied once at the end of the pregnant spike to the breaking period, and then according to the weather conditions in the spike period to apply a second drug. The agent can be used for each 666 square meters of 20% tricyclozole wettable powder 100 grams, or 25% mimosine water 80 ~ 100 ml, or 40% rice plague emulsifiable oil 75 ~ 115 ml, to 40 ~ 45 kg of water, uniform spray.
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